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What are the different types of accountants?




All accountants are not the same. If you are looking to build a career for yourself in the finance sector, then you must understand the different accounting roles and get an insight into what work each type of accountant performs in a day.

Some of the possible career routes that you can pursue under accountancy are as follows:

  1. Cost accountant 

Businesses always aim to achieve cost efficiency to maximise the profit. Cost accountants are responsible for analysing every cost related to production, material, labour, shipping and administration. 

They assist the business in the preparation of a budget based on profitability analysis.

  1. Management accountant 

Management accountants are responsible for analysing the financial standing of a business and providing the information related to the business financial health to the business owner. 

Based on this information, the board of directors and line managers can make sound and critical strategic decisions regarding the business’s future. 

Some of the functions that management accountants perform are:- 

  • Planning and budgeting 
  • Variance analysis
  • Profitability analysis 
  • Risk management 
  • Organisation and presentation of management information
  1. Chartered accountant 

A chartered accountant is the premium finance qualification. Attaining such a qualification usually requires a combination of work experience and passing examinations. 

Chartered accountants are based in every city, and you find an accountant near me by searching on google or using specialist services providers, like Experlu. 

Some of the responsibilities that chartered accountants have to fulfil are:- 

  • Providing financial advice 
  • Advising on tax planning, treasury issues and business transactions (mergers and acquisitions) 
  • Preparing the financial statements 
  • Undertaking financial audit 
  • Dealing with any financial irregularities that may arise
  • Overall responsibility of finance function
  • The Head of finance usually reports directly to the CEO
  1. Tax accountant 

Tax accountants assist businesses to meet all the tax obligations by preparing and submitting tax computations and returns by the deadline and ensuring whether they are compliant with the laws and regulations or not. 

Tax accountants focus on liaising and negotiating with HMRC on behalf of their clients. 

Apart from this, they guide on minimising tax liability, indirect taxation (environmental taxes, custom planning and VAT), tax residence, and more.

  1. Auditor

Large businesses are required to conduct at least one external audit every year to verify the preciseness and accuracy of their financial records. 

This is where an auditor comes into the picture. An auditor is a specialist accountant responsible for scrutinising the accounting records and system and examining the business’s financial statements without any biases.

They provide counsel to the business to prevent future issues and ensure that they comply with all the financial laws and regulations.

After the audit, auditors provide an audit report to the shareholders. 

  1. Forensic accountant 

Forensic accountants act as detectives in the accountancy sector. Their job is to analyse a company’s financial records to ensure that all the financial discrepancies, errors, and inaccuracies are taken care of. 

Forensic accountants may either be self-employed, work for the government, work in the legal industry, or in a particular type of accounting firm to verify that their statements comply with the standards and laws.

  1. Staff accountant 

Staff accountants perform a variety of functions like: 

  • Preparing and analysing the financial reports of the business 
  • Maintaining general and subsidiary accounts 
  • Maintaining payroll records 
  • Performing reconciliation of bank accounts 
  • Supervising clerical employees 
  • Creating a budget for the business 

They usually report to the senior accountant; they are responsible for creating financial forecasts and verifying whether the organisation is compliant with financial laws and regulations or not.

  1. Investment accountant 

Investment accountants usually work with asset management or investment brokerage firms to maintain their clients’ investments while heeding the state regulations. 

They also help the firm in developing and improving its financial strategy. Along with the basics of accounting, investment accountants need to have an understanding of the investment opportunities that the business offers.

  1. Project accountant 

Project accountants work on a project-by-project basis to supervise all the aspects of a project. 

This includes preparation and collection of invoices, approval of expenses, planning and maintenance of budgets, verification of employees’ billable hours and ensuring timely completion of the project before the deadline. 

A project accountant needs to have strong interpersonal, teamwork and communication skills to have an excellent working relationship with project managers and other colleagues.

Project accountants are usually specialist in a specific International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS). 

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Graphs and Functions in Mathematics



Graphs and Functions in Mathematics

Graph paper gives many advantages over ordinary plain paper, and as of late it has become typical to print off diagram paper from the PC, instead of buying costly heaps of it. This is especially useful when diagramming sheets are being utilized in workplaces and study halls, as there will clearly be interest for a huge amount. 

In Arithmetic , a Capacities is a twofold association between two sets that relates each part of the chief set to definitively one part of the resulting set. Normal models are limits from one number to another, or from the authentic numbers to certified numbers.

The Fundamental Graphing Principle for Functions

The chart of a capacity f is the arrangement of focuses which fulfill the condition y = f(x). That is, the point (x, y) is on the diagram of f if and provided that y = f(x)

How to evaluate the Functions

The value of expression is the consequence of the calculation portrayed by this articulation when the factors and constants in it are doled out qualities. The worth of a capacity, given the value(s) appointed to its argument(s), is the amount accepted by the capacity for these contention esteems.

General Function Behaviour 

The following few parts, every group of capacities has its own extraordinary qualities and we will contemplate them all exhaustively. The reason for this present area’s conversation, then, at that point, is to establish the framework for that further review by researching parts of capacity conduct which apply to all capacities. To start, we will analyze the ideas of expanding, diminishing and steady. Prior to characterizing the ideas logarithmically, it is enlightening to initially check out them graphically. Consider the diagram of the work f underneath

The equation representing graphed function is the y-capture and the incline to compose the condition in y-catch (y=mx+b) structure. Incline is the adjustment of y over the adjustment of x. Discover two focuses on the line and draw a slant triangle associating the two focuses


In reality, it ‘s extremely normal that one amount relies upon another amount called factors and we see that there is a connection between them. In the event that we find for each worth of the principal variable there is just one worth of the subsequent variable, then, at that point, we say the subsequent variable is a component of the primary variable. The principal variable is the autonomous variable which is normally composed as x and the subsequent variable is the reliant variable composed as y. It is a standard that relates how one amount relies upon different amounts. Thus, the capacity is at least one principle that is applied to an info and yield. The information is the number or worth put into a capacity. The yield is the number or worth the capacity gives out. The chart of a capacity is the arrangement of all focuses whose coordinates (x, y) fulfill the capacity y = f(x). This implies that for every x-esteem there is a related y-esteem which is obtained when we substitute into the given capacity.

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Food Bioengineering: 3 Things You Should Know About



Food Bioengineering

Have you ever walked into a grocery store and felt overwhelmed by the number of product choices available to you? Technology today has provided an astounding amount of choices for consumers with options like organic or free-range. You can even buy fake meat, made to look real.

But when you think of the phrase “you are what you eat”, it can be difficult to know what exactly it is you’re eating.

Food bioengineering has been around for some time, but how exactly does it work? Let’s explore 3 need-to-know facts about the concept and how it is applied.

1. Definition

To begin, what is the definition of food bioengineering? Per the United States Department of Agriculture, bioengineered food is “food that contains genetic material that has been modified through certain laboratory techniques.”

This means the DNA of the organism in question has been modified in some way. Growing of these food types is regulated at federal levels, with oversight from various agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

2. Common Food Products

You may already be familiar with certain bioengineered food products. A lot of what you see on the grocery store shelves today has been genetically modified. Soy is a common engineered food product found in many forms.  Foods like corn and alfalfa have been genetically modified to contain genes that make them resistant to certain herbicides.

Another common modified food is zucchini. Commercially available zucchini generally contains genes that protect against viruses. A few additional common foods listed under the bioengineered umbrella:

  • Certain apples
  • Cotton
  • Eggplant
  • Pink pineapple
  • Papaya
  • Sugarbeet

These foods, along with any others that carry a bioengineered label, must be disclosed as bioengineered by those entities that carry them.

3. Important Labels

Genetically modified foods are carefully tested and regulated. In general, labeling requirements differ from country to country. In the U.S. specifically, manufacturers are now required to disclose genetically modified ingredients on food labels.

Labelling GMOs on food products became standard in 2016, when the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard law was passed by Congress. This law got passed in an effort to provide more transparency to consumers about food safety in regards to bioengineered food products.

This law essentially requires that foods containing more than 5% of bioengineered ingredients be labeled via text on the food packaging, as a symbol, or as a scannable electronic. It allows consumers to quickly pick out if a product has been genetically modified or not.

Food Bioengineering Is the Future

The food that we produce and eat has the ability to improve not only the health of humans but the health of the planet as well. Our ever-growing population has put a significant strain on the production and consumption of food agriculture. Food bioengineering has allowed us to create items that are resistant to drought, pests, herbicides and even provide increased yields.

While the regulations of bioengineered foods are complex and nuanced, one thing is for certain. Knowing where the ingredients we consume come from and what they are is a good thing.

If you found the information presented above helpful, feel free to browse through our additional articles listed in the Lifestyle or Tech sections.

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Tips On How To Become A Top Chemistry Student



Become A Top Chemistry Student

Becoming good at Chemistry is possible for any student who put in the work. With the following tips, you can improve your skills and score well on your assignments and exams. You only need to remember that consistency is just as important as strategy. Be sure to keep at it for long to get the best outcome.

  1. Practice your skills 

Many students expect to become good at Chemistry immediately after they learn a new concept. Afterward, they realize that this is not possible and quickly get frustrated. The importance of practicing your Chemistry formulas cannot be overemphasized. You give your brain the chance to get used to how the concepts work by applying them repeatedly. You get to make mistakes, which allow you to see in what areas you must improve. That way, you are less likely to repeat the same errors in your assignments or your exams. Enjoy your Chemistry practice because it is the ideal opportunity to improve your skills and become an excellent student.

  1. Show up for classes

All top students know that half of becoming good at Chemistry is showing up for classes. You must be present when your course instructors are teaching, or you will miss most of your learning. Without going to class, you fall behind in your syllabus and need more help to catch up. In class, learners understand complex calculations and ask questions when they are stuck. They can also participate actively and help other students in the process. Going to class is the easiest part of being good at Chemistry because it takes minimal effort on your part. Just make sure you pay close attention and ask questions.

  1. Request for assistance 

Asking for help is often the most tasking thing for most learners. We often shy away from saying that we are not good at something and we need assistance. However, you can start small. If you learn something new and need clarification, ask your professor to give you a simple breakdown. Talk to other top students whenever you are struggling with completing your homework. Something as simple as how to find half-life is a common mistake for students. With a simple online calculator, you can easily tackle the calculations.

  1. Work as a team

Group assignments are often used as a teaching tool, and with good reason. They provide learners with an opportunity to work together and leverage each other’s strengths. Whatever you are poor at, your fellow student is more likely to be better at it than you. For instance, some learners are better at hydrocarbons and reaction calculations, while others are better at titration and laboratory experiments. When you have different skills, you can use that knowledge to complete group assignments. Beyond working together, you can study together and keep each other accountable. When one person misses class, the others can tell them what they learnt.

  1. Put it into practice. 

Learners who do not apply their education to real-world scenarios find it hard to conceptualise Chemistry. If you can get an internship, you are in a great position to understand your classwork. The calculations go from being a bunch of numbers and letters to actual chemicals and quantities. Alternatively, you can visit chemical or manufacturing plants to understand how reactions occur in real life. At the very least, you should attend your laboratory sessions and actively participate in the experiments.


No matter how poor you are in Chemistry, you can always get better. All you need is to take the time for Chemistry practice and know when to ask for help. In no time, you will find it easy to top your class.

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