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What’s the use of Through-Hole Technology in PCB Designing?

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Technology in PCB Designing

Greetings and welcome to today’s lecture. It is going to be a very interesting and interactive class about introduction to Through Hole Technology (THT) and Surface Mount Technology (SMT) that are applied in the process of designing the printed circuit boards.  A PCB board is made up of properly designed circuits that are composed of connecting wires/paths and various electrical components. The electrical components are mounted on the board. In fact, they are fixed to the board. If the components are not fixed, then there will be no durability and this might lead to various losses that can be avoided. In the process of mounting these components, here is where the through-hole technology and the surface mount technology come in.  They are very important processes in the design of printed circuit boards.

Overview.

This is one of the methods used in the attachment of components to PCB during the manufacturing process.

  • THT is the oldest among these PCB attachment methods.
  • For so long time it was the standard method that was used in the PCB assembly process.
  • In the 1980s, when the surface mount technology process was introduced in the field of the PCB assembly, so many people thought that the THT method will become extinct but that is not the case.
  • THT is used in all kinds of PCB designs i.e. Single Layer PCB, Multilayer PCB, Flexible PCB etc.

Through-Hole Technology (THT) is the method used in the attachment of the PCB electrical components and elements in the PCB whereby the components being placed have long leads that are soldered into the board through the holes drilled.

Process

  • Dill holes on the PCB following the clients’ design.
  • Select your components. They must have long leads. Also, remember components are on the design you have been given by the client.
  • Place the components on the board and ensure that their leads are on the holes as defined in the design.
  • Check that the components are in the positions described in the design to ensure that there will be no errors at the end of the process.
  • Solder the terminals on the board accordingly. Ensure that the solder is on one side of the leads.
  • Fill the other unsoldered side with flax.

Initially, this process was done manually hence it took a lot of time before coming up with a single complete board. Today, due to the changes in technology, it has become so easy to carry out the through-hole technology process. There are several automatic systems that aid out in the process and make it easy for the manufacturers, for example, the introduction of the automated insertion machines which actually helps in inserting the electrical elements into the drilled holes in the PCB before the soldering process starts.

Classifications of Through Hole Components.

We have talked about the electrical components being placed on the PCB boards through the through-hole. These components can be classified into two that is the radial leads components and the axial lead components.

The radial leads components.

From the image displayed, there is already something that is building up in your mind. Observe it well. Look at the leads. Can you see something common with the device leads? Yes of course. You are right! Both the two leads originate from the common side of the components. That is what we call a radial lead component. This method finds its application commonly in the packaging of the capacitors.

The components can be mounted either vertically or horizontally.

Let us have a look at that from the images below.

The vertical mounting of the Radial THT components.

on this method, the component is always place perpendicular to the board while the base is placed parallel to the board. complete joint. Soldering is done on one side of the terminal and the other side is filled with flax.

The horizontal mounting of the Radial THT components.

the contact body is fixed on the horizontal as you can see from the images. The leads exhibit a very nice bend and also spacing. This allows the proper filling of the solder on the component hence forming the strongest

The Axial leads Components.

  • These are the most commonly used elements of the THT PCB methods components assembly.
  • Here the leads of the components appear from opposite sides to each other. See what is in the attached image on the left.

Also, it can be classified as horizontal mounting and vertical mounting.

horizontal axial mounting method

Vertical axial mounting method.

Applications of the THT

  • High voltage areas eg in the medical equipment.
  • High mechanical stress devices eg military equipment.
  • High power areas eg in the steam boilers.
  • High temperatures operating devices eg in the nuclear plants.
  • Prototyping and testing of components.

 Advantages of using the THT method of PCB components Mounting.

  1. The use of the THT method will ensure that you have a very strong mechanical bond compared to the SMTs components.
  2. THT bound components have high resistance to wear and tear and this is made possible by the use of the large soldering deposits at the terminals.
  3. The THT components are very easy to swap and repair the components hence they are the best for prototyping works.
  4. It is best suited for places where strong mechanical applications are needed such as aerospace and military equipment.

 Disadvantages of the THT method of PCB components Mounting.

  1. Due to the drilling of the required holes, the production cost goes higher compared to the other method.
  2. Also, drilling of the holes requires some additional time, hence the THT method takes a longer time compared to other methods.
  3. This method limits the available routing paths for the multilayer PCBs because the drilled holes have to go through the given layers.
  4. The technology being used in the industrial mass production of the THT types of the PCB is less reliable compared to the other methods used.

The Difference Between THT and The SMT in PCB.

THROUGH HOLESURFACE MOUNT
The components require the drilling of the holes for mounting.No holes are required for mounting. Mounting is done through pads.
All the components are mounted on one side of the board and it is in most cases done manually.Components can be mounted on either side of the board and the process is mostly automated.
The process of mounting is either manual or can be automated.The mounting process is basically automated.
Do not employ the use of stencils.This process involves the use of stencils to be achieved.
There are no vias in the pads.Use of the vias in the pads.
These are used when a low density of the component is needed.This works so well when the component density is very high.
Reworking and repairing are very simple.Here the process of repairing and reworking is very complex.
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[pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a] Error Code Solved

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The error code [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a]primarily show once your Microsoft outlook won’t be usable appropriately. all through this journal, I offers you answer and show you the simple strategy of gratitude to fix [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a]error.

Consequently, clients are searching for elective approaches to fix the problem and are gone up against with such countless problems in tracking down the correct method to solve the problem,

This article selection will show you the seven most ideal approaches to fix the [pii_email_8079047 error alongside other normal Outlook errors, including pii_email from Microsoft Outlook.

The outlook is convenient in light of the fact that it permits you to introduce different records and allows you to utilize corporate letter boxes. The program has every one of the settings you need, including depression remedy and automatic informing.

To begin utilizing Outlook, you should set up your records when you initially start the program.

Simply follow the program’s bearings: an easy to use interface and ideas will assist novices with getting it.

Here Are The Essential Reasons.

  1. Reserving is the primary justification this issue.
  2. Utilizing or signing in with numerous records makes programming fights.
  3. Utilization of an obsolete adaptation or another variation with fractional or little upgrades.

The error [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a], [pii_email_be5f33dbc1906d2b5336] happens in view of the STMP worker. Its activity normally incorporates two principle capacities:

  1. Confirm the arrangement and license the PC that hopes to send the email.
  2. Send an approaching directive for the discourse and affirm that this message has been sent. In the event that conveyance is unimaginable, the machine returns an answer with a send error to the sender

Most ideal Approaches To Fix [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a]Error

  • Utilize the Web rendition of Microsoft
  • Change the form to MS Office
  • Kindly contact customer administration.

Reinstall Outlook

It is a technique basically utilized by engineers to address MS errors. You can fix the [pii_email_8e90db124b2282f8e586] error or [pii_email_4bd3f6cbbb12ef19daea],  by reinstalling Microsoft Outlook.

  • Open the Control Board from the foundation of the pursuit bar.
  • Snap Projects and Highlights.
  • Quest for Microsoft Office or whatever other application that is making the error and snap on it.
  • Snap Uninstall

Clear All Cache

Subsequent to clearing the Microsoft see reserve and treats, the recently saved clashing or troublesome information will be wiped out. New reserves will begin to be made that will solve the problem.

Adhere to the guidelines to clear stores:

  • Go to Window Search distribution.
  • Make rate localappdata percent \ Microsoft \ Outlook and press Enter.
  • Open the RoamCache organizer by double tapping it containing store records.
  • In the event that you need to keep these stores, you can duplicate them to another area on your PC.
  • Select the whole record by basically taking the Shift key alongside choosing all reserve documents.
  • At that point press the Erase key.
  • An affirmation exchange will open. Press Yes.

Update Microsoft Outlook

Following this method, if Microsoft estimates require an update, let it refresh and restart your PC and check whether the [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a]error has been resolved.

Prior to introducing another update, check the framework prerequisites for the Microsoft Office view’s most recent adaptation. To a great extent by introducing another variant of Microsoft Office, the past adaptation was automatically wiped out. However, in the event that you are worried about an error while refreshing, you can uninstall the version and then download another one.

  • Kindly follow the headings underneath to refresh;
  • Open the MS view and snap on the document.
  • In the route bar, click Office Record.
  • Snap Update Choice
  • You can furthermore choose the On Auto-update choice, Change worker port number.

Adjust Server

To adjust the [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a]email error, kindly do the accompanying:

  • If it’s not too much trouble, visit the fundamental choice page to see a rundown of your mail account.
  • Snap the email account with the problem.
  • Go to the High level Choices tab.
  • Snap alright and close

Use Web Variant

Today you will actually want to send emails alongside the problem [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a],  [pii_email_c1646d6cd617ef1be6ab] that can be resolved.

  • Utilize the web rendition of Microsoft.
  • Microsoft’s web adaptation of the gauge experiences insignificant problems.
  • Go to login alternatives and snap.
  • Sign in with your record email address and secret word.
  • What’s more, signal
  • Or then again you can make another record.

On the off chance that nothing works with the past techniques, fix the [pii_email_2b7633b1bd7b462ff38a]glitch. The past work environment brings down the Microsoft Office variation’s evaluating as numerous applications have similarity issues with the running framework.

Commonly, all updates are not distributed together, which makes the application similarity troublesome. To do this, you can design past variations or cripple an introduced update to fix the problems.

Contact Customer Administration.

On the off chance that you have carried out every one of the ways and are confronting the pii_email error, the last arrangement is to call the MS office customer service group and request another

Continue Reading

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[PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8] Error Code Solved

Published

on

The error code [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8]primarily show once your Microsoft outlook won’t be usable appropriately. all through this journal, I offers you answer and show you the simple strategy of gratitude to fix [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8]error.

Consequently, clients are searching for elective approaches to fix the problem and are gone up against with such countless problems in tracking down the correct method to solve the problem,

This article selection will show you the seven most ideal approaches to fix the [pii_email_8079047 error alongside other normal Outlook errors, including pii_email from Microsoft Outlook.

The outlook is convenient in light of the fact that it permits you to introduce different records and allows you to utilize corporate letter boxes. The program has every one of the settings you need, including depression remedy and automatic informing.

To begin utilizing Outlook, you should set up your records when you initially start the program.

Simply follow the program’s bearings: an easy to use interface and ideas will assist novices with getting it.

Here Are The Essential Reasons.

  1. Reserving is the primary justification this issue.
  2. Utilizing or signing in with numerous records makes programming fights.
  3. Utilization of an obsolete adaptation or another variation with fractional or little upgrades.

The error [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8], [pii_email_be5f33dbc1906d2b5336] happens in view of the STMP worker. Its activity normally incorporates two principle capacities:

  1. Confirm the arrangement and license the PC that hopes to send the email.
  2. Send an approaching directive for the discourse and affirm that this message has been sent. In the event that conveyance is unimaginable, the machine returns an answer with a send error to the sender

Most ideal Approaches To Fix [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8]Error

  • Utilize the Web rendition of Microsoft
  • Change the form to MS Office
  • Kindly contact customer administration.

Reinstall Outlook

It is a technique basically utilized by engineers to address MS errors. You can fix the [pii_email_8e90db124b2282f8e586] error or [pii_email_4bd3f6cbbb12ef19daea],  by reinstalling Microsoft Outlook.

  • Open the Control Board from the foundation of the pursuit bar.
  • Snap Projects and Highlights.
  • Quest for Microsoft Office or whatever other application that is making the error and snap on it.
  • Snap Uninstall

Clear All Cache

Subsequent to clearing the Microsoft see reserve and treats, the recently saved clashing or troublesome information will be wiped out. New reserves will begin to be made that will solve the problem.

Adhere to the guidelines to clear stores:

  • Go to Window Search distribution.
  • Make rate localappdata percent \ Microsoft \ Outlook and press Enter.
  • Open the RoamCache organizer by double tapping it containing store records.
  • In the event that you need to keep these stores, you can duplicate them to another area on your PC.
  • Select the whole record by basically taking the Shift key alongside choosing all reserve documents.
  • At that point press the Erase key.
  • An affirmation exchange will open. Press Yes.

Update Microsoft Outlook

Following this method, if Microsoft estimates require an update, let it refresh and restart your PC and check whether the [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8]error has been resolved.

Prior to introducing another update, check the framework prerequisites for the Microsoft Office view’s most recent adaptation. To a great extent by introducing another variant of Microsoft Office, the past adaptation was automatically wiped out. However, in the event that you are worried about an error while refreshing, you can uninstall the version and then download another one.

  • Kindly follow the headings underneath to refresh;
  • Open the MS view and snap on the document.
  • In the route bar, click Office Record.
  • Snap Update Choice
  • You can furthermore choose the On Auto-update choice, Change worker port number.

Adjust Server

To adjust the [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8]email error, kindly do the accompanying:

  • If it’s not too much trouble, visit the fundamental choice page to see a rundown of your mail account.
  • Snap the email account with the problem.
  • Go to the High level Choices tab.
  • Snap alright and close

Use Web Variant

Today you will actually want to send emails alongside the problem [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8],  [pii_email_c1646d6cd617ef1be6ab] that can be resolved.

  • Utilize the web rendition of Microsoft.
  • Microsoft’s web adaptation of the gauge experiences insignificant problems.
  • Go to login alternatives and snap.
  • Sign in with your record email address and secret word.
  • What’s more, signal
  • Or then again you can make another record.

On the off chance that nothing works with the past techniques, fix the [PII_PN_F86B2FDECFE6B2E8]glitch. The past work environment brings down the Microsoft Office variation’s evaluating as numerous applications have similarity issues with the running framework.

Commonly, all updates are not distributed together, which makes the application similarity troublesome. To do this, you can design past variations or cripple an introduced update to fix the problems.

Contact Customer Administration.

On the off chance that you have carried out every one of the ways and are confronting the pii_email error, the last arrangement is to call the MS office customer service group and request another

Continue Reading

Tech

[pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4] Error Code Solved

Published

on

The error code [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4]primarily show once your Microsoft outlook won’t be usable appropriately. all through this journal, I offers you answer and show you the simple strategy of gratitude to fix [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4]error.

Consequently, clients are searching for elective approaches to fix the problem and are gone up against with such countless problems in tracking down the correct method to solve the problem,

This article selection will show you the seven most ideal approaches to fix the [pii_email_8079047 error alongside other normal Outlook errors, including pii_email from Microsoft Outlook.

The outlook is convenient in light of the fact that it permits you to introduce different records and allows you to utilize corporate letter boxes. The program has every one of the settings you need, including depression remedy and automatic informing.

To begin utilizing Outlook, you should set up your records when you initially start the program.

Simply follow the program’s bearings: an easy to use interface and ideas will assist novices with getting it.

Here Are The Essential Reasons.

  1. Reserving is the primary justification this issue.
  2. Utilizing or signing in with numerous records makes programming fights.
  3. Utilization of an obsolete adaptation or another variation with fractional or little upgrades.

The error [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4], [pii_email_be5f33dbc1906d2b5336] happens in view of the STMP worker. Its activity normally incorporates two principle capacities:

  1. Confirm the arrangement and license the PC that hopes to send the email.
  2. Send an approaching directive for the discourse and affirm that this message has been sent. In the event that conveyance is unimaginable, the machine returns an answer with a send error to the sender

Most ideal Approaches To Fix [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4]Error

  • Utilize the Web rendition of Microsoft
  • Change the form to MS Office
  • Kindly contact customer administration.

Reinstall Outlook

It is a technique basically utilized by engineers to address MS errors. You can fix the [pii_email_8e90db124b2282f8e586] error or [pii_email_4bd3f6cbbb12ef19daea],  by reinstalling Microsoft Outlook.

  • Open the Control Board from the foundation of the pursuit bar.
  • Snap Projects and Highlights.
  • Quest for Microsoft Office or whatever other application that is making the error and snap on it.
  • Snap Uninstall

Clear All Cache

Subsequent to clearing the Microsoft see reserve and treats, the recently saved clashing or troublesome information will be wiped out. New reserves will begin to be made that will solve the problem.

Adhere to the guidelines to clear stores:

  • Go to Window Search distribution.
  • Make rate localappdata percent \ Microsoft \ Outlook and press Enter.
  • Open the RoamCache organizer by double tapping it containing store records.
  • In the event that you need to keep these stores, you can duplicate them to another area on your PC.
  • Select the whole record by basically taking the Shift key alongside choosing all reserve documents.
  • At that point press the Erase key.
  • An affirmation exchange will open. Press Yes.

Update Microsoft Outlook

Following this method, if Microsoft estimates require an update, let it refresh and restart your PC and check whether the [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4]error has been resolved.

Prior to introducing another update, check the framework prerequisites for the Microsoft Office view’s most recent adaptation. To a great extent by introducing another variant of Microsoft Office, the past adaptation was automatically wiped out. However, in the event that you are worried about an error while refreshing, you can uninstall the version and then download another one.

  • Kindly follow the headings underneath to refresh;
  • Open the MS view and snap on the document.
  • In the route bar, click Office Record.
  • Snap Update Choice
  • You can furthermore choose the On Auto-update choice, Change worker port number.

Adjust Server

To adjust the [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4]email error, kindly do the accompanying:

  • If it’s not too much trouble, visit the fundamental choice page to see a rundown of your mail account.
  • Snap the email account with the problem.
  • Go to the High level Choices tab.
  • Snap alright and close

Use Web Variant

Today you will actually want to send emails alongside the problem [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4],  [pii_email_c1646d6cd617ef1be6ab] that can be resolved.

  • Utilize the web rendition of Microsoft.
  • Microsoft’s web adaptation of the gauge experiences insignificant problems.
  • Go to login alternatives and snap.
  • Sign in with your record email address and secret word.
  • What’s more, signal
  • Or then again you can make another record.

On the off chance that nothing works with the past techniques, fix the [pii_email_8833c133ba6bf68312e4]glitch. The past work environment brings down the Microsoft Office variation’s evaluating as numerous applications have similarity issues with the running framework.

Commonly, all updates are not distributed together, which makes the application similarity troublesome. To do this, you can design past variations or cripple an introduced update to fix the problems.

Contact Customer Administration.

On the off chance that you have carried out every one of the ways and are confronting the pii_email error, the last arrangement is to call the MS office customer service group and request another

Continue Reading

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