What’s the use of Through-Hole Technology in PCB Designing?
Greetings and welcome to today’s lecture. It is going to be a very interesting and interactive class about introduction to Through Hole Technology (THT) and Surface Mount Technology (SMT) that are applied in the process of designing the printed circuit boards. A PCB board is made up of properly designed circuits that are composed of connecting wires/paths and various electrical components. The electrical components are mounted on the board. In fact, they are fixed to the board. If the components are not fixed, then there will be no durability and this might lead to various losses that can be avoided. In the process of mounting these components, here is where the through-hole technology and the surface mount technology come in. They are very important processes in the design of printed circuit boards.
This is one of the methods used in the attachment of components to PCB during the manufacturing process.
- THT is the oldest among these PCB attachment methods.
- For so long time it was the standard method that was used in the PCB assembly process.
- In the 1980s, when the surface mount technology process was introduced in the field of the PCB assembly, so many people thought that the THT method will become extinct but that is not the case.
- THT is used in all kinds of PCB designs i.e. Single Layer PCB, Multilayer PCB, Flexible PCB etc.
Through-Hole Technology (THT) is the method used in the attachment of the PCB electrical components and elements in the PCB whereby the components being placed have long leads that are soldered into the board through the holes drilled.
- Dill holes on the PCB following the clients’ design.
- Select your components. They must have long leads. Also, remember components are on the design you have been given by the client.
- Place the components on the board and ensure that their leads are on the holes as defined in the design.
- Check that the components are in the positions described in the design to ensure that there will be no errors at the end of the process.
- Solder the terminals on the board accordingly. Ensure that the solder is on one side of the leads.
- Fill the other unsoldered side with flax.
Initially, this process was done manually hence it took a lot of time before coming up with a single complete board. Today, due to the changes in technology, it has become so easy to carry out the through-hole technology process. There are several automatic systems that aid out in the process and make it easy for the manufacturers, for example, the introduction of the automated insertion machines which actually helps in inserting the electrical elements into the drilled holes in the PCB before the soldering process starts.
Classifications of Through Hole Components.
We have talked about the electrical components being placed on the PCB boards through the through-hole. These components can be classified into two that is the radial leads components and the axial lead components.
The radial leads components.
From the image displayed, there is already something that is building up in your mind. Observe it well. Look at the leads. Can you see something common with the device leads? Yes of course. You are right! Both the two leads originate from the common side of the components. That is what we call a radial lead component. This method finds its application commonly in the packaging of the capacitors.
The components can be mounted either vertically or horizontally.
Let us have a look at that from the images below.
The vertical mounting of the Radial THT components.
on this method, the component is always place perpendicular to the board while the base is placed parallel to the board. complete joint. Soldering is done on one side of the terminal and the other side is filled with flax.
The horizontal mounting of the Radial THT components.
the contact body is fixed on the horizontal as you can see from the images. The leads exhibit a very nice bend and also spacing. This allows the proper filling of the solder on the component hence forming the strongest
The Axial leads Components.
- These are the most commonly used elements of the THT PCB methods components assembly.
- Here the leads of the components appear from opposite sides to each other. See what is in the attached image on the left.
Also, it can be classified as horizontal mounting and vertical mounting.
horizontal axial mounting method
Vertical axial mounting method.
Applications of the THT
- High voltage areas eg in the medical equipment.
- High mechanical stress devices eg military equipment.
- High power areas eg in the steam boilers.
- High temperatures operating devices eg in the nuclear plants.
- Prototyping and testing of components.
Advantages of using the THT method of PCB components Mounting.
- The use of the THT method will ensure that you have a very strong mechanical bond compared to the SMTs components.
- THT bound components have high resistance to wear and tear and this is made possible by the use of the large soldering deposits at the terminals.
- The THT components are very easy to swap and repair the components hence they are the best for prototyping works.
- It is best suited for places where strong mechanical applications are needed such as aerospace and military equipment.
Disadvantages of the THT method of PCB components Mounting.
- Due to the drilling of the required holes, the production cost goes higher compared to the other method.
- Also, drilling of the holes requires some additional time, hence the THT method takes a longer time compared to other methods.
- This method limits the available routing paths for the multilayer PCBs because the drilled holes have to go through the given layers.
- The technology being used in the industrial mass production of the THT types of the PCB is less reliable compared to the other methods used.
The Difference Between THT and The SMT in PCB.
|THROUGH HOLE||SURFACE MOUNT|
|The components require the drilling of the holes for mounting.||No holes are required for mounting. Mounting is done through pads.|
|All the components are mounted on one side of the board and it is in most cases done manually.||Components can be mounted on either side of the board and the process is mostly automated.|
|The process of mounting is either manual or can be automated.||The mounting process is basically automated.|
|Do not employ the use of stencils.||This process involves the use of stencils to be achieved.|
|There are no vias in the pads.||Use of the vias in the pads.|
|These are used when a low density of the component is needed.||This works so well when the component density is very high.|
|Reworking and repairing are very simple.||Here the process of repairing and reworking is very complex.|
The technical aspects of white label VPN – Guest Blog
VPNs have been on the rise for quite some time now; however, a “White Label VPN” is the buzzword of the moment in the VPN space. White Label VPN solutions benefit from an already developed VPN infrastructure that you can either tweak and use for your business or sell. A White Label VPN is mainly designed and maintained by a third-party VPN provider, whereas the consumer focuses on branding, marketing, and selling the VPN; however, in some cases, that is not all because of the different technical aspects of a White Label VPN.
Since most people don’t know about the technical side of a White Label VPN, they run into all kinds of technical problems while using the service, so today, we will look at White Label VPNs from a technical viewpoint.
Why look at The Technical Aspect?
One of the main reasons every White Label VPN user must have at least some technical knowledge is that the user would have to provide technical assistance. Whether you’re using a White Label VPN for your organization or using it to make money from it by selling it, one thing that is mandatory in most cases is that you would have to provide customer support to the users. The only way you can do that is when you are technically sound.
Let’s look at some common technical difficulties that most White Label VPN users face.
Creating or Integrating a White Label VPNThere different ways you can create or integrate a White Label VPN; these options heavily depend on the VPN provider, but some of the most common ones include.
VPN In-App SDK – After creating your VPN application, you can easily integrate an In-App SDK provided by the VPN provider. An SDK is short for software development kit; as the name suggests, it provides all the necessary tools for integration and installation. With the help of an SDK, you can easily integrate a White Label VPN in less than an hour.
Custom VPN SDK – Most White Label VPN providers also provide a custom SDK; this means that you would be restricted to a specific set of tools and can change the VPN however you like. Custom SDK development takes a significantly longer time than the other option.
- Integrating the White Label VPN APIs
Most White Label VPN providers provide different endpoints for users to use in their code. Some examples of these APIs include the Server List API and the Account Management API.
- WHMCS Integration
This one is for those users using the service as a business. WHMCS is One of the essential tools you need while running your own White Label VPN. The WHMCS is an automation platform that allows you to automate your VPN business by providing features like account management, bill management, and support interfaces for web hosting.
- Legal Compliance
One mistake many people make is that they are unsure whether the VPN service complies with all the relevant laws and regulations. You must consider all privacy and data protection laws, as this would help you avoid any legal issues in the future.
Documentation plays a massive role in understanding a VPN provider’s infrastructure and services. The White Label VPN that you are choosing must have clear and concise documentation through which you can examine all the APIs and understand how the SDKs work.
- VPN Features
The features the VPN provider provides are among the significant technical aspects you must focus on. To ensure you choose the right VPN, select one with an advanced protocol such as IKEV, L2TO, UDP, and TCP. Moreover, the VPN should also have military-grade encryption and custom white-label apps.
Why is the mechanical keyboard better than ordinary keyboards?
Although these days many devices are touch screens still we can’t deny the value of a keyboard. You can enter data quickly and easily by using a keyboard. There are many types of keyboards but at present, mechanical keyboards are very popular. A mechanical keyboard is a keyboard that uses individual mechanical switches for each key. This means that each key press is more precise and more responsive than on a traditional keyboard. They are more durable, reliable, and stylish. In addition to a good-looking appearance and good gaming sense, they also have more advantages than ordinary membrane keyboards. Due to its increasing popularity, the price has also dropped more and more. At present, many keyboards can be bought for a few dollars. This article will tell you the complete details about mechanical keyboards.
Long life of mechanical keyboard keys
Mechanical keyboards have a longer key life. At present, the theoretical service life of the membrane keyboard is very low than of a mechanical keyboard. As it uses individual mechanical switches for each key so there are fewer chances of problems. Furthermore, you can easily make different combinations of different keys as per your needs. The structure also determines the feel, so the feel of the mechanical keyboard is stable for a longer period, and the feel will not change significantly over a relatively long period. If you’re looking for a more precise and responsive keyboard, or a more durable keyboard that will last for years, a mechanical keyboard is a great choice. Furthermore, it looks cool and there are many varieties available in the market. They have a unique style that sets them apart from traditional keyboards. And because they’re so customizable, you can make yours look however you want.
They are flexible
The internal structure of the mechanical keyboard is complex, but the design flexibility is extremely strong. Since each button is made with an independent axis, compared with the ordinary membrane keyboard, which only has 6 keys with no punch, the keyboard can even have all keys without a punch, which is very suitable for gamers. The various parts of the mechanical keyboard are relatively independent, and we can modify various parts such as keycaps, shafts, and casings. At present, there are many keyboards with hot-swappable shafts and easy shell replacements on the market, so we don’t need to modify them with fanfare with the original soldering iron screwdrivers and other tools when we customize the keyboard. It only takes a few simple steps to replace its components. Even beginners can DIY by themselves, which is quite convenient.
Better user experience
If you use the keyboard frequently, you must buy a mechanical keyboard for the best user experience. Mechanical keyboards offer a better typing experience than traditional membrane keyboards. This is because each key on it is actuated by a separate mechanism. This provides a more responsive and tactile feel that is superior for typing. They are also customizable, allowing you to change the keycaps, backlight, and other features. This can help you to create a keyboard that feels more comfortable and suits your style. Most programmers and coders use these keyboards because they are flexible, durable, and easy to use and maintain. You can make different combinations of different keys during playing a game. You can also remap the whole keyboard accordingly. If you are looking for a more durable and comfortable keyboard, then a mechanical keyboard may be the right choice for you.
Is it good to switch to a mechanical keyboard?
There are many reasons why you might want to switch to a mechanical keyboard. If you’re a gamer, you know that every little advantage can help you win. If you’re a programmer, you know that a good keyboard can help you code faster. If you’re a writer, you know that a good keyboard can help you get your thoughts down on the page faster. And if you’re just someone who likes to type, you know that a good keyboard can make the experience of typing more enjoyable.
A mechanical keyboard is a keyboard that uses physical switches beneath the keys to transmit data. They are often considered to be more durable and provide a better typing experience than traditional membrane keyboards. Below are the reasons why you might want to switch to a mechanical keyboard.
- They are durable
- Easy to use
- Good typing experience
- Good for gaming
- Good for programming
- Long life
- Easy to customize
- Different lighting effects
- They are comfortable
- Good for health
- Different styles
- Many more
So, what are you waiting for, just switch your regular keyboard to a mechanical keyboard and you will feel the difference.
How to find the right keyboard?
Are you a programmer or coder and looking for a new keyboard? If so, you may be wondering if you should switch to a mechanical keyboard. Here are a few things to consider when choosing the right keyboard for you. First of all, it is very important to consider the switch of a mechanical keyboard. There are three main types of switches clicky, linear, and tactile. Clicky switches are the most tactile, providing a distinct click sound when you press a key. Linear switches are smooth and offer little resistance, making them great for fast typing. Tactile switches are slightly bumpy, providing feedback that lets you know when you’ve pressed a key. So you must choose one according to your needs.
Another important factor is the size and features of a keyboard. Keyboards come in a variety of sizes. The most common size is full-size, which includes a number pad. Some keyboards don’t have a number pad, and they’re a popular choice for gamers. Compact keyboards are even smaller, and they’re great for traveling. Furthermore, you should also consider lights, sound, and other features of the keyboard. Finally, you should buy a keyboard according to your budget. In this way, you can easily find a mechanical keyboard without any problem.
Comparing the Best Roofing Material for Solar Panels
Going green, helping the environment and leaving a better world for our children is possible while also helping yourself. Solar energy is taking over the world in strides, and the technology behind it has moved away from experimental to affordable. With solar panels on your roof, you will notice how your quality of life drastically improves, and you will be helping Mother Nature. While solar panels are universal, roof types are not, and different roofs require a bit more fiddling. Don’t worry, we are here to help.
1. Metal roof
The first and easiest roof type for solar panels is the metal roof. Since solar panels convert heat to electricity, metal roofs help greatly with that process. A metal roof is long-lasting when combined with solar panels, plantation shutters, and good landscaping, which will all add to the overall property value of your home. Metal roofs are durable because of the material and offer the easiest way to install solar panels, as they provide structural support. With all that in mind, if you have a metal roof, the logical extension is to install solar panels and capitalise on your investment.
2. Asphalt roof
Next, we have the asphalt roof, which is available, cheap, durable and easy to install. As standard asphalt roof lasts between ten and thirty years, it’s important to invest a bit and get a good and reputable roofer. By doing so, you get a premium deal. The reasoning is that you want your asphalt roof to last as long as your solar panels. Good roofers and installers will not hamper the personal style of your home and will install them with ease. Look out for those who put extra care into filling the gaps beneath and install metal frames as the support for solar panels. Asphalt is durable, but when solar panels pile up, they need all the help they can get.
3. Classic tile roof
Some styles are classic and timeless for a reason. Your tile roof is probably your pride and joy as it crowns your home. When you wish to install solar panels to it, you need certified classic slate roofing experts to do the job! Tyles have to be removed, and the base has to be reinforced. Everything around also needs drainage and other methods to keep the solar panels in place.
All of this may sound like it will demolish and ruin your great roof, but in practice and when done right, it adds to your overall value, and solar panels fit in seamlessly with the overall house design. Everything we listed so far adds up and can cost more than other options, but all investments made, go towards preserving your classic look and ensuring that solar panels will last as long as your roof.
4. Gravel and tar
Rugged, durable, rustic and cheap, these two options can go the extra mile when you add asphalt. The biggest job around installing solar panels on a gravel and tar roof is tilting them to a thirty-degree angle. Most roofs using tar and gravel, are flat or near flat but don’t worry, as tar, gravel and asphalt all offer an excellent base for the installation of just about anything, including solar panels. Why do many people opt for the usage of all three elements?
Because when you have grave and tar, you have insulation and protection, but asphalt is there to seal any pores and offer an additional layer of protection. You can’t go wrong with the combination of all three, and it will create the perfect groundwork for your solar panels. A bonus to consider is that this option lasts up to thirty years. Eventual damage to your tar and gravel roof is easy and quick to fix.
The modern way of living requires us to incorporate natural and efficient methods. Mother Nature is an inspiration for us all in every aspect of our lives, culture and industry. Solar energy is free and readily available, as the Sun won’t be going out of juice for the foreseeable future. It’s about time we put that great energy to use and start harvesting it. The sooner you change your view around your roof, the sooner you can start reaping the rewards!
Business2 years ago
Find out how useful a loan is without a credit check
Travel2 years ago
A Quick Traveler’s Guide to Malaga – You Can’t-Miss
Tech2 years ago
Food Lion Employee Login at ws4.delhaize.com – MyHR4U
Business5 months ago
Best Workplace Upgrade
International2 years ago
How End Receding Hairline And Stimulate Hair Regrowth
Digital Marketing2 years ago
Is YouTube Marketing Capable of Taking Your Business to the Next Level?
International2 years ago
The 4 Golden Rules When Building An Online Email Distribution List
International2 years ago
Hemp Designs And Fashions – Is Hemp Fashion Really Fashion?